Withdrawing Hostile Takeover
Initially, a company starts off to make an attempt to plan a hostile takeover, however, it withdraws its attempt and alternatively suggests a merger of equals with the company that has been targeted. This method is known as a yellow knight.
We can say that the yellow knight is the instance where the acquirer thinks that if you cannot defeat them, then merge with them. There might several reasons because of which the acquirer will decide to back off of attempting to take over the company. But commonly the acquiring company will just realize that the targeted company will cost them more and also that they might have takeover tactics that might be much better than they imagined initially, therefore they decide that the strategy needs to be changed.
When this kind of change in the strategy takes place the yellow knight will be left in a position that weak with respect to bargaining. However, they can still find better profits when there is a friendly merger that happens provided the merger will yield an actual financial reasoning. The word yellow knight speaks itself because this will imply that the bidder who is planning a hostile takeover got cold feet and decides to back out because they are frightened of making the attempt which will leave them in a position where their bargaining becomes weak.
There is a lot of variety of takeover types and possible takeover and all of them are identified by different knight color when it comes to mergers and acquisitions. There are the black knight, white knight, and gray knight. In black knight, the firm makes an attempt to make a hostile biding in order to take over the company. In white knight, there is involvement of a third firm that offers a friendly deal in order to purchase the targeted acquisition. In gray knight, there is another second uninvited bidder involved in the takeover of the corporate company. This bidder is an unsolicited one in a merger or acquisition that happens publically, where when there are issues that emerge between the first firm that has bided and the target firm.
Black knight in detail
The offer made by the company for takeover in black knight is an unwelcomed deal. Either a tender offer is made like a proxy fight to proceed with a hostile takeover or the shares are purchased on the open market. A friendly deal for takeover can be offered by the white knight which will help the targeted company.